An earthquake of the year 2015 has taken place in Nepal. Over 5,000 lives and many historical places have been destroyed in this earthquake. Although this was the most dangerous earthquake of the year 2015, history is full of many deadly earthquakes. Below is the list of ten worst earthquakes in the history according to magnitude, deadliest, and damages caused.
1. Valdivia Earthquake
Valdivia earthquake that is also named as Great Chilean earthquake was took place on May 22, 1960 that affected the southern Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and Aleutian Islands. The rating was 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded. Over 6,000 people were died and properties of worth $400 million to $800 million were destroyed.
2. Alaska Earthquake
Alaskan earthquake or Great Alaskan Earthquake or Good Friday Earthquake was the second most powerful earthquake ever recorded. Only 139 deaths were occurred but the magnitude of the earthquake was 9.2. The quake was a reported XI on the modified Mercalli Intensity scale “indicating major structural damage, and ground fissures and failures.” Total property damage was estimated at $311 million than. This earthquake occurred on March 27, 1964.
3. Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami
One of the most terrible earthquake of 21st century. This earthquake is knows as 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, South Asian Tsunami, Indonesian Tsunami, the Christmas Tsunami and the Boxing Day Tsunami. The earthquake took place on December 26, 2004. The magnitude was 9.1 and at least 228,000 to 230,000 causalities were occurred in 14 countries of the world. It caused the entire earth planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimeter.
4. Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami
Another worst earthquake occurred in 21st century. This time Japan was suffered by the earthquake. The quake took place on March 11, 2011. The rating was 9.0 on the moment magnitude scale and duration was 6 minutes. Over 15,891 causalities were occurred. The quake is also known as the Great East Japan earthquake and was the most powerful earthquake every recorded to have hit Japan, and fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since 1900.
5. Kamchatka Earthquake
Eastern Russia and former Soviet Union had faced four earthquakes till now. The earthquake that was occurred on 1952 was the most worst earthquake of Russian history. The magnitude of the quake was 8.2 that was revised to 9 in later years. This quake resulted in destruction and loss of life around the Kamchatka peninsula and the Kuril Islands.
6. Arica Earthquake
This quake occurred on August 13, 1868 near Arica that was then part of Peru and now part of the Chile. The magnitude of the quake was estimated between 8.5 and 9.0. The quake was recorded in Hawaii, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. Over 25,000 were died in the quake. The quake affected almost complete destruction in the southern part of Peru, including Arica, Tacna, Moquegua, Mollendo, IIo, Iquique, Torata and Arequipa.
7. Cascadia Earthquake
An earthquake that had equally shattered the USA and Canada. The Cascadia earthquake was occurred on January 26, 1700. The estimated moment magnitude was between 8.7 to 9.2. The earthquake then affected the Pacific Ocean, USA, and Canada (then part of the British Empire). It was also the worst earthquakes in history.
8. Sanriku Earthquake
The second worst earthquakes in the history of Japan and eighth worst earthquakes in the history of world. This was earthquake was associated tsunami struck that took place on July 9, 869. The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of 8.6 on the surface wave magnitude scale. According to geologist, it is likely that the moment magnitude rating may have been similar to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami at around 9.0.
9. Sanriku Earthquake
The third most terrible quake in the history of Japan that took place on December 2, 1611. The magnitude of the quake was 8.1M. It triggered a devastating tsunami. According to past records, the earth shook violently three times. The estimated rupture areas for earthquake is similar to that calculated for the 1933 Sanriku earthquake. About 5,000 people were died in this earthquake.
10. Arakan Earthquake
It was the tenth worst earthquakes in history that was occurred on April 02, 1762 in Chittagong (latest Bangladesh) and Arakan (latest Burma). It had estimated magnitude of 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale and maximum estimated intensity of XI (extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. It triggered a local tsunami in the Bay of Bengal and caused at least 200 deaths.
Note: This list is based on the research of Wikipedia.